A number of NPDES permit program areas affect how a municipality handles its sanitary wastewater and stormwater runoff. Properly managed municipal facilities, such as publicly owned treatment works (POTWs), and wastewater systems, such as separate and combined storm sewer systems, play an important role in protecting community health and local water quality. Municipalities rely on assistance from other partners, such as industry, developers, and homeowners, to ensure that they can meet the requirements contained in their municipal NPDES permits. Municipal staff, who are responsible for meeting NPDES permit obligations, must understand how the NPDES permit program works, who should be involved and educated about the NPDES program, and what information is available to help perform their jobs effectively.
Pollutant removal efficiency, usually represented by a percentage, specifically refers to the pollutant reduction from the inflow to the outflow of a system. The two most common computation methods are event mean concentration (EMC) efficiency and mass or load efficiency. When more than one method was used to calculate pollutant removal in a specific BMP study, mass or load-based measurements of removal efficiency were entered into the database rather than concentration-based measurements. Pollutant removal efficiency, usually represented by a percentage, specifically refers to the pollutant reduction from the inflow to the outflow of a system. The two most common computation methods are event mean concentration (EMC) efficiency and mass or load efficiency. When more than one method was used to calculate pollutant removal in a specific BMP study, mass or load-based measurements of removal efficiency were entered into the database rather than concentration-based measurements.
The National Resources Inventory (NRI) is a statistical survey of natural resource conditions and trends on non-Federal land in the United States. Non-Federal land includes privately owned lands, tribal and trust lands, and lands controlled by state and local governments.
The National Small Flows Clearinghouse (NSFC) was funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to help America's small communities and individuals solve their wastewater problems through objective information about onsite wastewater collection and treatment systems. NSFC products and information are the only national resource of its type, dealing with small community wastewater infrastructure.
The University of Alabama and the Center for Watershed Protection were awarded an EPA Office of Water 104(b)3 grant in 2001 to collect and evaluate stormwater data from a representative number of NPDES (National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System) MS4 (municipal separate storm sewer system) stormwater permit holders. The initial version of this database, the National Stormwater Quality Database (NSQD, version 1.1) is currently being completed. These stormwater quality data and site descriptions are being collected and reviewed to describe the characteristics of national stormwater quality, to provide guidance for future sampling needs, and to enhance local stormwater management activities in areas having limited data. The monitoring data collected over nearly a ten-year period from more than 200 municipalities throughout the country have a great potential in characterizing the quality of stormwater runoff and comparing it against historical benchmarks. This project is creating a national database of stormwater monitoring data collected as part of the existing stormwater permit program, providing a scientific analysis of the data, and providing recommendations for improving the quality and management value of future NPDES monitoring efforts. No Louisiana monitoring data included in database.
The National Water Quality Initiative will work in priority watersheds to help farmers, ranchers and forest landowners improve water quality and aquatic habitats in impaired streams. NRCS will help producers implement conservation and management practices through a systems approach to control and trap nutrient and manure runoff. Qualified producers will receive assistance for installing conservation practices such as cover crops, filter strips and terraces.
The Council was created in 1997 as a vehicle for bringing together diverse expertise needed to develop collaborative, comparable, and cost-effective approaches for monitoring and assessing our Nation’s water quality. The approaches are fundamental to the successful management and sustainability of our waters, and are increasingly important because water issues are becoming more complex, resources are tighter, and the demand for high-quality water continues to grow in order to support a complex web of human activities and aquatic ecosystem needs. The National Water Quality Monitoring Council (Council) provides a national forum for coordination of comparable and scientifically defensible methods and strategies to improve water quality monitoring, assessment and reporting, and promotes partnerships to foster collaboration, advance the science, and improve management within all elements of the water quality monitoring community. Vital to this role, the Council provides a voice for monitoring practitioners across the Nation and fosters increased understanding and stewardship of our water resources.
The Nationwide Urban Runoff Program (NURP) was conducted by EPA and many cooperating agencies. It was the first comprehensive study of urban stormwater pollution across the United States. NURP was established in 1978 as a 5-year program that examined: quality characteristics of urban runoff and similarities or differences at different urban locations, the extent to which urban runoff is a significant contributor to water quality problems across the nation, and performance characteristics and the overall effectiveness and utility of management practices for the control of pollutant loads from urban runoff. Final report from 1983 may be out of date, and no locations of NURP Projects noted in Louisiana.
The USGS NAWQA program provides information that can help managers tailor protection strategies to fit the need, providing high quality water while minimizing costs. As the NAWQA program began, the program sought advice on which contaminants were most important to focus on. There was almost unanimous agreement that nutrients were a widespread and longstanding issue. Examples of two significant projects driven by the NAWQA program include the Nutrients National Synthesis and the SPARROW model. The Nutrients National Synthesis is answering questions such as: • Where are nutrient concentrations high in ground water and surface water? • Are nutrient concentrations changing? Getting better or worse? • Does everyone drink similar quality water? How does mine compare? • Why are nutrient concentrations in my water high (or low)? • How much is natural, and how much have humans added?
This report explores the use of nitrogen in U.S. agriculture and assesses changes in nutrient management by farmers that may improve nitrogen use efficiency. It also reviews a number of policy approaches for improving nitrogen management and identifies issues affecting their potential performance. Findings reveal that about two-thirds of U.S. cropland is not meeting three criteria for good nitrogen management related to the rate, timing, and method of application. Several policy approaches, including financial incentives, nitrogen management as a condition of farm program eligibility, and regulation, could induce farmers to improve their nitrogen management and reduce nitrogen losses to the environment. Similar to 2010 CEAP on Upper Miss Basin. Both analyses assess baseline nitrogen management on cropland according to three criteria: rate, timing, and method.